When administered slowly absorbed completely. The maximum plasma concentration is determined after 1-2 hours, the connection with plasma proteins – 50%, in infants – 30-40%. It is metabolized in the liver, induces hepatic microsomal enzymes equipose (the rate of enzymatic reactions is increased 10-12 times). It accumulates in the body. The half-life of 2-4 days. Excreted by the kidneys in the form of glucuronide, about 25% – unchanged. Penetrates into breast milk and through the placenta.

Indications

  • epilepsy (all types of seizures except absence seizures), non-epileptic seizures genesis;
  • chorea;
  • spastic paralysis;
  • sleep disturbances, agitation, anxiety, fear.

CONTRAINDICATIONS
Hypersensitivity to any component of the drug, severe hepatic and / or renal failure, drug dependency (including history), hyperkinesis, myasthenia gravis, severe anemia, porphyria, diabetes, hypoadrenalism, hyperthyroidism, depression, bronchial obstructive disease, active alcohol , pregnancy, lactation period. this dosage is not used in children because of the impossibility of accurately dosing (for children use tablets containing 5 mg or 50 mg of pentobarbital) .

Precautions
In debilitated patients (high risk of paradoxical excitation, depression, and confusion even in the appointment of the usual dose).

Dosage and administration
. Inside Adult :

  • sleep disorders: 100-200 mg for 0.5-1 hours before bedtime.
  • as a sedative medicinal product: 50 mg 2-3 times a day.
  • as an anticonvulsant: 50-100 mg 2 times a day.

By reducing liver function should be administered in smaller doses.

Side effect On the part of the equipose nervous system : asthenia, dizziness, weakness, ataxia, nystagmus, paradoxical reaction (especially in elderly and debilitated patients – excitement), hallucinations, depression, “nightmarish” dream, sleep disturbances, syncope. On the part of the musculoskeletal unit : long-term use – osteopenia and rickets development. From the digestive system : nausea, vomiting, constipation, long-term use – the liver. From the side of hematopoiesis : agranulocytosis, megaloblastic anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Since the cardiovascular system : lowering blood pressure. Allergic reactions : skin rash, hives, swelling of the eyelids, face and lips, shortness of breath, rarely – exfoliative dermatitis malignant exudative erythema {Stevens-Johnson syndrome). Other : long-term use – drug dependency.

 

Overdose Symptoms : nystagmus, ataxia, dizziness, headache, confusion, slurred speech, severe fatigue, decrease or loss of reflexes, severe drowsiness or agitation, increase or decrease in body temperature, respiratory depression, shortness of breath, decreased blood pressure, constriction of the pupils (alternating with paralytic extension), oliguria, tachy or bradycardia, cyanosis, confusion, cessation of electrical activity in the brain, pulmonary edema, coma, and later – pneumonia, arrhythmia, heart failure; when taking 2-10 grams – death; in chronic toxicity – irritability, weakening of the capacity for critical evaluation, sleep disturbances, confusion. Treatment : No specific antidote. Gastric lavage, reception activated carbon, conducting detoxification therapy, symptomatic treatment, the maintenance of vital body functions.

Interaction with other drugs
phenytoin and phenobarbital valproate increases the content in blood serum. The anticonvulsant effect of phenobarbital decreases at the same time taking with reserpine, increases when combined with amitriptyline, nialamidom, diazepam, hlordiaazepoksidom.
Reduces the effectiveness of oral contraceptives and salicylates.
Decreases in blood levels of anticoagulants, corticosteroids, griseofulvin, doxycycline, estrogens and other drugs metabolized in liver by oxidation pathway (accelerates their destruction).
Enhances the effects of alcohol, neuroleptics, narcotic analgesics, muscle relaxants, sedatives and hypnotics.
Acetazolamide, oschelachivaya urine equipose reduces the reabsorption of phenobarbital in the kidneys and weakens its effect.
phenobarbital calming effect is reduced while taking atropine, herb extract, dextrose, thiamine, niacin, analeptikami and psycho-stimulant drugs.
Reduces the antibacterial activity of antibiotics and sulfonamides, anti-fungal effect of griseofulvin.

Cautions
Avoid prolonged use of the drug because of the possibility of its accumulation in the body and the development of addiction.
In order to avoid the syndrome of “lifting” (headache, “nightmarish” dream, drowsiness, and / or insomnia) to stop the treatment should be gradual.
During treatment, not recommended driving and exercise activities that require speed of psychomotor reactions.

Form release
tablets 100 mg. On 6 tablets in contour bezgyachakova container or 10 tablets in blisters. 1 contour bezgyachakova packaging or 1 or 2 blisters with instruction on use in a pile of cardboard.